Referencing is a way of acknowledging every source used in research or in the completion of an assignment. The details you provide for a source are normally its author, title, date and place of publication, and the name of its publisher. You may have to provide additional details, depending on what form the source takes, such as a volume number or a web link. These individual references are then collected into what’s called a bibliography.
Citing is a way of briefly referencing a source within the text of your assignment, linking it to the more detailed reference in the bibliography. This is usually done when you paraphrase someone else’s ideas or directly quote them. Information, facts, and dates that are considered common knowledge are not required to be referenced e.g. Dublin is the capital city of Ireland.
A guide on Harvard style is available here This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources. However if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts or documentaries you must also cite the source in full. A list of various source types, formatted in the Harvard style, is available here.
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Accurate referencing doesn’t only help protect your work from plagiarism – presenting your source material in a consistent and clear way also enhances the readability of your work. Closely follow the NACD referencing system’s formatting rules on font type, font size, text-alignment and line spacing to ensure that your work is easily legible. Before submitting your work check that you have formatted your whole paper – including your reference list – according to the style’s formatting guidelines.
How to format your essays or research projects:
(School of Visual Culture)