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Reference & Citation: Using Harvard Style

Help with Reference & Citation, Harvard Style.

Bibliography examples

Citation Guide


Harvard Referencing Style

Use the tabs to learn more about referencing these types of materials. Please note that this is not a comprehensive guide and only covers some of the most common examples.

For a more detailed guide see Cite Them Right, available for consultation and loan from the Edward Murphy Library. 

Single Author Book

Reference Structure: Author/Editor. (Year) Title. Place of publication: publisher.


Poyner, R. (1998) Design without Boundaries. London: Booth-Clibborn Editions.

Wells, L. (ed.) (2004) Photography: A Critical Introduction. 3rd ed. London: Routledge. 

Multi-Author Book

Reference Structure: Author 1, Author 2. (Year) Title. Place of publication: publisher.


Kuang, C. and Fabricant, R. (2020) User friendly: how the hidden rules of design are changing the way we live, work, and play. London, England: Penguin.

Ritch, E.L., Canning, C. and McColl, J. (eds.) (2023) Pioneering new perspectives in the fashion industry : disruption, diversity and sustainable innovation. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Chapter in an Edited Collection

Reference Structure: Author(s), (Year) 'Chapter Title', in Editor(s) Name (ed.) Title of Collection. Place of publication: publisher, pp. X-Y. 


Smith, P. J. (1997) ‘British Art in the 1980s and 1990s’ in Murphy, B. (ed.) Art from Britain. Sydney: Museum of Contemporary Art, pp. 147-159.

Chapter in a Multi-volume Work 

Reference Structure: Author(s), (Year) 'Chapter Title', in Editor(s) Name (ed.) Title of Collection. Place of publication: publisher, pp. X-Y. 


Skov, L. (2010) 'The Study of Dress and Fashion in West Europe' in Shov, L. (ed.) Berg Encyclopedia of World Dress and Fashion: Vol. 8, West Europe. Oxford: Berg, pp. 3–8.


When an eBook looks like a printed book, you should reference in the same way with the following structure: 

Author/Editor. (Year) Title. Place of publication: publisher.

If the electronic copy of the book is different (it might not use pagination) you can use the following format: 

Author/Editor. (Year) Title. DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: date). 


Koskinen, I.K. (2011) Design research through practice : from the lab, field, and showroom. Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann. 

Crouch, C. and Pearce, J. (2012) Doing research in design. English edition. London: Berg. Available at: (Accessed: April 10, 2024).



Journal Article (Print Version)

Reference Structure: Author. (Year) 'Article Title', Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page range. 


Grant, L. and Walker, R. (2000) 'Accidental pilgrims: 19th-century British travellers and photographers in Santiago de Compostela', The British Art Journal, 1(2), pp. 3–12.

Journal Article (Online Version)

Reference Structure: Author. (Year) 'Article Title', Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page range. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).

Salter, G. (2017) 'Francis Bacon and Queer Intimacy in Post-War London', Visual Culture in Britain, 18(1), pp. 84–99. Available at: 


Knight, K. (2023) 'Irresistible', Selvedge, (117), pp. 74–78. Available at: (Accessed: 9 April 2024).

Newspaper Article 

Reference structure: Author/byline. (Year) 'Title of Article', Newspaper Title, day and month, page reference OR Available at: URL (Accessed: date).  


Ruiz, C. (2023) 'Record number for National Gallery show in Shanghai', The Art Newspaper, (358) July/August, p. 9.

Lordon, T. (2024) 'Lovers review: Green on Red’s spontaneous group show is inspired by a surreal depiction of love', Irish Times, 20 February. Available at: (Accessed: 11 April 2024).


If you make use of the Library's online resources (databases, eBooks, journals etc) and other open access publications, the referencing format will be dictated by the material format - for example, a book chapter, a journal article etc. For more general web references, for example personal, institutional or governmental websites, the formatting below can be used. Remember to give as much information as possible, with the aim of your reader being able to find this material for themselves. As web pages are often updated or removed, the date of access is even more important. 

Remember to be cautious about information found on the internet, and refer to the methodologies outlined in our 'Evaluating Sources' guide. 

Website (Author Identified) 

Reference Structure: Author. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of Web Page. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). 


Burton, P.A. (2012) Castles of Spain. Available at: (Accessed: 10 April 2024)

Website (No Known Author)

Reference Structure: Title of Web Page (date) Available at: URL (Accessed: date). 


National Built Heritage Service (no date) Available at: (Accessed: 11 April 2024)

Website (Organisation)

Reference Structure: Organisation Name (date) Title of Website. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)


National Gallery of Ireland (2024) Art and Artists. Available at: (Accessed: 11 April 2024)

Blog Posts 

Reference Structure: Author (Year) 'Title of Post', Title of Site, Day and Month of Post. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). 


Butterfield, L. (2019) ‘Research spotlight: I want to get high enough up the chain to pull others over the wall with me’, Oxford Science Blog, 1 November. Available at: (Accessed 5 November 2019).


Social Media 


Reference Structure: Author. (Year of post) 'Title of post' [Instagram]. Date of tweet. Available at:URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).


NCAD Library. (2024) 'Snow scenes from the library’s windows and from Pieter Bruegel the Elder' [Instagram]. 1 March 2024. Available at: (Accessed: 19 April 2024). 


Reference Structure: Author. (Year page/post published) Title of page [Facebook] Date of post. Available at: URL. (Accessed Day Month Year).


Culture Ireland. (2024). Ireland at Venice [Facebook] 18 April 2024. Available at: (Accessed: 19 April 2024). 


Reference Structure: Author(s) Last name, Initial(s). [username] (Year of post) excerpt form post [Twitter] Day Month of tweet. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).


Makris, C. [@c_makris] (2024) My curatorial project 'Is this a poem?' opened  @MoLI_Museum on Saturday. [Twitter/X] 26 February. Available at: (Accessed: 19 April 2024). 


Reference Structure (Film viewed on DVD): Title of film (Year of Distribution) Directed by [Material designation]. Place of distribution: Distributor.

Reference Structure (Film viewed on Streaming Service):Title of film (Year of Distribution) Directed by DOI or Available at: Name of Service (Accessed: Date). 


Macbeth (1948) Directed by Orson Welles [Film]. USA: Republic Pictures.

The Matrix Reloaded (2003) Directed by A. & L. Wachowski. Available at: Netflix. (Accessed April 2024). 


Reference Structure (Programme): Title of Programme (Year of Transmission) Transmission Channel, Day Month, Time of Transmission.

Reference Structure (Episode): 'Title of Episode' (Year of Transmission) Title of Programme, Series and episode numbers. Transmission Channel, Day Month, Time of Transmission.

Reference Structure (Streaming Platform): 'Title of Episode' (Year of Original Broadcast) Title Series/Season. Series/Season and episode number - if known. Production Company. Available at: Name of Service (Accessed: Date). 


Friends (1994) Channel 4, 23 September, 21:00. 

'The One Where Nana Dies Twice' (1994) Friends, Series 1, episode 8. Channel 4, 19 April, 21:00. 

'The One Where Nana Dies Twice' (1994) Friends, Series 1, episode 8. Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions Available at: Netflix (Accessed 19 April 2024). 


YouTube Video 

Reference Structure: Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Video Title of film. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


Raok2008 (2008) For a cooler Tube. Available at: (Accessed: 13 June 2008).


Author/Presenter (Year site was published/last updated) ‘Title of Podcast’, Title of Internet site [Podcast]. Day/month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed: date)


Ndiritu, G. (2010) ‘Questions from the past’, Tate Events [Podcast]. 2 February Available at: 2010_02_12_Grace_Ndiritu.mp3 (Accessed: 11 April 2010).


Reference Structure: Author (Year of Publication) Title of Thesis. Degree statement. Degree awarding body.


Russell, M. (2010) The exact opposite of beauty : the carnivalesque in the work of John Waters. Unpublished BA thesis. National College of Art & Design. 

Clancy, L. (2008) Dead air: live art; schizophrenia and double coding in broadcast radio. Unpublished PhD thesis. National University of Ireland.


Reference Structure: Title of Exhibition (Year) [Exhibition]. Location. Dates of exhibition. 


Europa (2016) [Exhibition]. IMMA, Dublin. 26 Nov 2016–26 Feb 2017.

Exhibition Catalogues 

Reference Structure: Author of Catalogue (Date of Exhibition) Exhibition Title. Place: Gallery Name. 

For exhibition catalogues with no author, the organiser should be cited as author. 


Arts Council (1970) Art in Turmoil. London: Serpentine Gallery.

When needed, your work should include high quality images relevant to your essay/research project. Like any other primary or secondary source, these need to be included in your citations and references. Three elements are needed to properly credit the images that you are making reference to: 

  • A caption underneath the image;
  • An in-text citation;
  • A reference entry in your 'List of Images', included at the end of your bibliography. 


Captions go directly underneath the image. First you must include the word Figure in italics and with a capital 'F' followed by its relevant number.  Listing the title, and in-text citation of the work.


Figure 1: Fishing boats: Carrying a currach, Inis Oírr. (Corduff, 1957)

Always refer to illustrations in the text by their number (in parentheses). 


In-Text Citation 

To cite an image found online in Harvard referencing, you need to give the creator’s surname and the year of creation in the in-text citations. 

For the photograph referenced above, an in-text citation could appear like this: 

"This picture depicts three men carrying a currach on Inis Óirr (Corduff, 1957)"

However if you name the creator in-text you only need to include the year:

"Leo Corduff's (1957) photograph depicts three men carrying a currach on Inis Óirr."


Bibliographic Entry for an Online Image

Reference Structure: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/photograph. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).


Corduff, L. (1957) Fishing boats: Carrying a currach, Inis Oírr. Available at: (Accessed: 19 April 2024). 

Cartier-Bresson, H. (1952) IRELAND. 1952. IRELAND. Munster. County Kerry. Tralee. 1952. Corpus Christi procession. Available at: (Accessed 14 December 2023)

Bibliographic Entry for a Printed Image

Reference Structure: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/photograph [Photograph/Image]. Place of publication: Publisher.


Miller, S.J. (1852) Frederick Douglass. [Photograph]. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation.

How to Cite a Painting

Reference Structure: Artist. (Year), Title of Work, [Medium], Institution or Collection, City. 


Boty, P. (1963) The Only Blonde in the World [Oil on canvas]. Tate Britain, London. 

Jacir, E. (2001-2003) Munier [Chromogenic print and text panel]. Whitney Museum of American Art. Available at: (Accessed: 19 April 2024). 

How to Cite a Museum Object

Reference Structure: Surname, Initials of maker/designer. (Responsibility eg. maker or designer) (Year) Name of object. [Type of object] Place of Archive/Museum: Name of Archive/Museum. Catalogue/reference number.


Petrie, J. (maker) (1803) Cast of Death Mask of Robert Emmet (1778-1803), Patriot. [Death Mask] Dublin: National Gallery of Ireland. NGI.8130. 


In-text Citations


Any direct quotations in your writing should be judiciously selected and should support or augment your argument. Short quotation (up to three lines) should be enclosed in single or double quotation marks, followed by the author, date and page number or URL for the source.

Below are some examples of how you cite different types of secondary sources in-text: 

Book with one author 

'In the cities in which we live, all of us see hundreds of publicity images every day of our lives. No other kind of image confronts us so frequently.' (Berger, 1972, p. 129).

Book with two or three authors 

Looking to an earlier period, the authors note that 'The existence of women artists was fully acknowledged until the nineteenth century, but it has only been virtually denied by modern writers.' (Parker and Pollock, 1981, p. 3).

Chapter in an edited collection

As Irit Rogoff argues, 'the work of theory is to unravel the very ground on which it stands.' (2008, p. 97). 



This is when you express someone else's writing in your own words, rather than quoting them directly: this method can help to achieve flow and clarity in your writing, however you need to be careful to retain the original meaning and give a proper citation. As an example, here is how you might paraphrase the Berger quotation above: 

'Berger (1972, p. 129) states that city-dwellers are surrounded by advertising imagery on a daily basis, noting that it is among the most frequently seen visual material.'



This is when you give a brief statement or overview about the key points of a book, article or other secondary source. A summary does not include detailed information, which is better served by quotation or paraphrasing. If we take the example of John Berger's Way of Seeing, this is how it could be summarised and cited: 

'A key work in the field (Berger, 1971) looks closely at the relationship between visual art and the social and economic contexts in which it is created.'

Works Cited

Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing. Reprint. London: Penguin, 2008. 

Parker, R. and Pollock, G. (1981) Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Rogoff, I. (2006) 'What is a Theorist?' in Elkins, J. and Newman, M. The State of Art Criticism. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 97-110.