Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Anthropology: Citation and Reference

Citation and Reference Guide


There are many formatting styles out there for references and citations, but the one NCAD uses is the Harvard style. This style is similar to others, but differs primarily in how it handles in-text citations.  This style is often referred to as the ‘author-date’ style.  As there is no single authority to define this style, several different versions of Harvard Referencing exist.  Please refer to the guide below for the specific version used within NCAD.  All students within NCAD are required to use the Harvard referencing format in their assignments. 



Difference between Quoting and Paraphrasing

Quoting involves copying material word for word, using quotation marks:

“It takes a great deal of time and thought to install work carefully. This should not always be thrown away. Most art is fragile and some should be placed and never moved again” (Judd, 1987, p. 35).

Paraphrasing means putting information from sources in your own words. No quotation marks are used. You still need to add a citation in brackets afterwards:

He placed a great importance on the curation of work, remarking that this process should take a large amount of time and thought to be done correctly (Judd, 1987, p. 35).

For more information and examples, refer to Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2013) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide.   (Note that other, older versions of this book are available in the library too). 

A list of various source types, formatted in the Harvard style, is available here

This guide presents examples of how to reference textual sources.  However if you use material from non-textual sources such as podcasts or documentaries you must also cite the source in full. 

A sample bibliography in the Harvard style is available here